Widely expressed at low levels with highest levels in bone, cartilage, kidney, liver, bone marrow and primary osteeoblasts differentiated for 21 days.
Defects in SOST are the cause of sclerosteosis (SOST) [MIM:269500]; also known as cortical hyperostosis with syndactyly. SOST is an autosomal recessive sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by a generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis leading to a markedly thickened skull, with mandible, ribs, clavicles and all long bones also being affected. Due to narrowing of the foramina of the cranial nerves, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss and atrophy of the optic nerves can occur. Sclerosteosis is clinically and radiologically very similar to van Buchem disease, mainly differentiated by hand malformations and a large stature in sclerosteosis patients. Note=A 52 kb deletion downstream of SOST results in SOST transcription suppression and is a cause of van Buchem disease (VBCH) [MIM:239100]; also known as hyperostosis corticalis generalisata. VBCH is an autosomal recessive sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by endosteal hyperostosis of the mandible, skull, ribs, clavicles, and diaphyses of the long bones. Affected patients present a symmetrically increased thickness of bones, most frequently found as an enlarged jawbone, but also an enlargement of the skull, ribs, diaphysis of long bones, as well as tubular bones of hands and feet. The clinical consequence of increased thickness of the skull include facial nerve palsy causing hearing loss, visual problems, neurological pain, and, very rarely, blindness as a consequence of optic atrophy. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels are elevated.
Belongs to the sclerostin family. Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.