Hypoxia markers guide

Find the products you need to detect hypoxia using protein markers such as HIF-1a and BNIP3.


Under hypoxia, HIF-1a is stabilized and moves into the nucleus, where it regulates transcription of genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia.

Figure 1. HIF-1a staining of HeLa cells. Anti-HIF-1a antibody [EPR16897] (ab179483) was used at 1/50 dilution with goat anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488) secondary antibody. Cells were treated with 0.6 nM CoCl2 for 6 hours.

See all HIF-1a products.


BNIP3 induction by HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions is involved in hypoxia-mediated autophagy, cell survival and tumor progression1.

Figure 2. BNIP3 staining of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Anti-BNIP3 mouse monoclonal antibody (ab10433) was used at 1/100 dilution and visualized by DAB.

See all BNIP3 products.


PDK1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1) is downstream of HIF-1α and is induced under hypoxia. Expression during hypoxia channels glucose through glycolysis to maintain ATP production2.

Figure 3. PDK1 staining of NIH/3T3 cells. Anti-mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 antibody (ab202468) was used at a dilution of 1/1000 with goat anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor 488) secondary antibody (ab150077). Cells were counterstained with DAPI (blue) and  tubulin also stained (red).

See all PDK1 products.


Expression of the GLUT1 glucose transporter is increased under hypoxic conditions, induced by HIF-1α3.

Figure 4. GLUT1 staining of HEPg2 cells. Anti-glucose transporter GLUT antibody (ab115730) was used at a dilution of 1/100 with Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (ab150077). Cells were counterstained with DAPI and tubulin was also stained (red).

See all GLUT1 products.


1. Bellot G, Garcia-Medina, Gounon P, Chiche J, Roux D, Pouysségur J, Mazure NM. Hypoxia-induced autophagy is mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor induction of BNIP3 and BNIP3L via their BH3 domains. Mol Cell Biol. 10, 2570–81 (2009).

2. Kim JW, Tchernyshyov I, Semenza GL, Dang CV. HIF-1-mediated expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: a metabolic switch required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia. Cell Metab. 3, 177–85 (2006).

3. Chen C, Pore N, Behrooz A, Ismail-Beigi F, Maity A. Regulation of glut1 mRNA by hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Interaction between H-ras and hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 276, 9519–25 (2000).