All tags Immunology NF-kappa B signaling pathway

NF-kappa B signaling pathway

NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of cytokines, growth factors, apoptosis inhibitors and effector enzymes in response to extracellular signals.

​​​​​​NF-κB comprises RelA (p65), RelB, c-Rel, NF-κB1 (p50) and NF-κB2 (p52). NF-κB can stimulate transcription of its target genes in a very quick fashion, as it exists freely in the cytoplasm, albeit inhibited by IκB proteins. In the canonical or classical pathway, NF-κB activation occurs through the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and subsequent proteosomal degradation of IκB. On the contrary, non-canonical or alternative activation involves phosphorylation and processing of the p52 precursor, p100 into the mature protein and subsequent nuclear translocation of the RelB:p52 heterodimer.