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Insulin controls the uptake of glucose by cells by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 to the cell membrane. Once glucose is internalized, it promotes its storage in the form of glucogen. In both cases, this is achieved through the action of PI3K/Akt who are activated by the insulin receptor substrate protein IRS-1.
Insulin also promotes protein synthesis by inhibiting the action of GSK3, which normally phosphorylates and inactivates eukaryotic initiation factors eIF2B and eIF4B.