The membrane-bound isoform 1 is a receptor involved in the development of the cardiovascular system, in angiogenesis, in the formation of certain neuronal circuits and in organogenesis outside the nervous system. It mediates the chemorepulsant activity of semaphorins. It binds to semaphorin 3A, The PLGF-2 isoform of PGF, The VEGF-165 isoform of VEGF and VEGF-B. Coexpression with KDR results in increased VEGF-165 binding to KDR as well as increased chemotaxis. It may regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The soluble isoform 2 binds VEGF-165 and appears to inhibit its binding to cells. It may also induce apoptosis by sequestering VEGF-165. May bind as well various members of the semaphorin family. Its expression has an averse effect on blood vessel number and integrity.
The expression of isoforms 1 and 2 does not seem to overlap. Isoform 1 is expressed by the blood vessels of different tissues. In the developing embryo it is found predominantly in the nervous system. In adult tissues, it is highly expressed in heart and placenta; moderately in lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas; and low in adult brain. Isoform 2 is found in liver hepatocytes, kidney distal and proximal tubules.
Belongs to the neuropilin family. Contains 2 CUB domains. Contains 2 F5/8 type C domains. Contains 1 MAM domain.