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Endocytosis, the process whereby cells internalize membrane receptors, hormones, and nutrients is pivotal to cellular function. Almost all cells utilize endocytosis, which can be categorized primarily into two different mechanisms:
1) Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)
2) Clathrin-independent endocytosis
Cells are also capable of internalizing cargo by phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, caveolin-dependent, and clathrin-and caveolin-independent pathways.
In addition to being an essential physiological process, endocytosis is often disrupted in many human diseases and is often manipulated and utilized by pathogens and toxins to gain entry into cells. This notably includes the HIV virus and the Botulinum toxins.
Both clathrin and dynamin play an important role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. By modulating endocytosis researchers can further explore the processes and mechanisms of endocytosis in addition to investigating its important roles in disease and pathophysiological processes.
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Sundborger AC and Hinshaw JE. Regulating dynamin dynamics during endocytosis. F1000Prime Rep 6:85 (2014). Read more (PubMed: 25374663)