Specifically binds to the upstream regulatory region of type I IFN and IFN-inducible MHC class I genes (the interferon consensus sequence (ICS)) and activates those genes. Acts as a tumor suppressor.
Defects in IRF1 are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]; also called gastric cancer intestinal or stomach cancer. Gastric cancer is a malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease.
Belongs to the IRF family. Contains 1 IRF tryptophan pentad repeat DNA-binding domain.
Sumoylation represses the transcriptional activity and displays enhanced resistance to protein degradation. Inactivates the tumor suppressor activity. Elevated levels in tumor cells. Major site is Lys-275. Sumoylation is enhanced by PIAS3 (By similarity). Desumoylated by SENP1 in tumor cells and appears to compete with ubiquitination on C-terminal sites. Ubiquitinated. Appears to compete with sumoylation on C-terminal sites.