The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/100. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
ab199507-Rabbit monoclonal IgG (HRP), is suitable for use an as isotype control with this antibody.
Kinase subunit of both mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulates cell growth and survival in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. mTORC1 is activated in response to growth factors or amino-acids. Growth factor-stimulated mTORC1 activation involves AKT1-mediated phosphorylation of TSC1-TSC2, which leads to the activation of the RHEB GTPase that potently activates the protein kinase activity of mTORC1. Amino-acid-signaling to mTORC1 requires its relocalization to the lysosomes mediated by the Ragulator complex and the Rag GTPases. Activated mTORC1 up-regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating key regulators of mRNA translation and ribosome synthesis. mTORC1 phosphorylates EIF4EBP1 and releases it from inhibiting the elongation initiation factor 4E (eiF4E). mTORC1 phosphorylates and activates S6K1 at 'Thr-421', which then promotes protein synthesis by phosphorylating PDCD4 and targeting it for degradation. Phosphorylates MAF1 leading to attenuation of its RNA polymerase III-repressive function. mTORC2 is also activated by growth. factors, but seems to be nutrient-insensitive. mTORC2 seems to function upstream of Rho GTPases to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, probably by activating one or more Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factors. mTORC2 promotes the serum-induced formation of stress-fibers or F-actin. mTORC2 plays a critical role in AKT1 'Ser-473' phosphorylation, which may facilitate the phosphorylation of the activation loop of AKT1 on 'Thr-308' by PDK1 which is a prerequisite for full activation. mTORC2 regulates the phosphorylation of SGK1 at 'Ser-422'. mTORC2 also modulates the phosphorylation of PRKCA on 'Ser-657'.
Expressed in numerous tissues, with highest levels in testis.
Autophosphorylated; when part of mTORC1 or mTORC2.
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Golgi apparatus membrane. Mitochondrion outer membrane. Lysosome. Cytoplasm. Nucleus > PML body. Shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus. Accumulates in the nucleus in response to hypoxia (By similarity). Targeting to lysosomes depends on amino acid availability and RRAGA and RRAGB.
IHC image of mTOR staining in a section of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal human testis*, performed on a Leica BOND. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20mins. The section was then incubated with ab196914 at 1/100 dilution, for 15 mins at room temperature. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX. The inset negative control image is taken from an identical assay without primary antibody.
For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, primary antibody concentration and antibody incubation times.
*Tissue obtained from the Human Research Tissue Bank, supported by the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre