Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Lipoic acid is a sulfur-containing substance that is readily converted to and from its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid. It acts as a coenzyme in reactions that occur in the Krebs cycle; specifically it is involved in the decarboxylation of pyruvate and some other alpha-keto acids. Protein-bound lipoic acids such as E2 subunits, a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, or pyruvate dehydrogenase have been shown to be highly susceptible to free radical-derived oxidative modification. Lipoic acid is able to deactivate both fat and water soluble free radicals and thereby protect both lipoproteins and membranes; no other anti-oxidant can do this. It has also shown great promise in the treatment of HIV and in diabetes.