The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/10000 - 1/50000. Detects a band of approximately 45, 56, 120 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 48, 72 kDa).
1/10 - 1/100.
1/100 - 1/250. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Heat up to 98 degrees C, below boiling, and then let cool for 10-20 min
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3) HMW-kininogen inhibits the thrombin- and plasmin-induced aggregation of thrombocytes; (4) the active peptide bradykinin that is released from HMW-kininogen shows a variety of physiological effects: (4A) influence in smooth muscle contraction, (4B) induction of hypotension, (4C) natriuresis and diuresis, (4D) decrease in blood glucose level, (4E) it is a mediator of inflammation and causes (4E1) increase in vascular permeability, (4E2) stimulation of nociceptors (4E3) release of other mediators of inflammation (e.g. prostaglandins), (4F) it has a cardioprotective effect (directly via bradykinin action, indirectly via endothelium-derived relaxing factor action); (5) LMW-kininogen inhibits the aggregation of thrombocytes; (6) LMW-kininogen is in contrast to HMW-kininogen not involved in blood clotting.
Secreted in plasma. T-kinin is detected in malignant ovarian, colon and breast carcinomas, but not in benign tumors.
Defects in KNG1 are the cause of high molecular weight kininogen deficiency (HMWK deficiency) [MIM:228960]. HMWK deficiency is an autosomal recessive coagulation defect. Patients with HWMK deficiency do not have a hemorrhagic tendency, but they exhibit abnormal surface-mediated activation of fibrinolysis.
Contains 3 cystatin domains.
Bradykinin is released from kininogen by plasma kallikrein. Hydroxylation of Pro-383 occurs prior to the release of bradykinin. Phosphorylation sites are present in the extracelllular medium. N- and O-glycosylated. O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans.
Yu J et al. Identification of Kininogen 1 as a Serum Protein Marker of Colorectal Adenoma in Patients with a Family History of Colorectal Cancer. J Cancer9:540-547 (2018).
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Schrödter S et al. Identification of the dopamine transporter SLC6A3 as a biomarker for patients with renal cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer15:10 (2016).
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