May play a role in local mechanisms of mucosal immunity and seems to have a proinflammatory function. May play a role in inflammatory bowel disease. Activates STAT1 and STAT3, MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2), JUN and AKT. Induces expression of SOCS3, TNF-alpha and IL-8, secretion of IL-8 and IL-10 and surface expression of ICAM1. Decreases proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Is inhibited by heparin.
Expressed in HVS transformed T-cells but not other T-cell lines or primary stimulated T-cells. Expressed in colonic T cells including Th17 inflammatory T cells; the expression is significantly increased in serum of patients with Crohn's disease (at protein level).