Responsible for the degradation of GM2 gangliosides, and a variety of other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines, in the brain and other tissues. The form B is active against certain oligosaccharides. The form S has no measurable activity.
Defects in HEXA are the cause of GM2-gangliosidosis type 1 (GM2G1) [MIM:272800]; also known as Tay-Sachs disease. GM2-gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease marked by the accumulation of GM2 gangliosides in the neuronal cells. GM2G1 is characterized by GM2 gangliosides accumulation in the absence of HEXA activity, leading to neurodegeneration and, in the infantile form, death in early childhood. GM2G1 has an increased incidence among Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians in eastern Quebec. It exists in several forms: infantile (most common and most severe), juvenile and adult (late onset).
Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 20 family.
N-linked glycan at Asn-115 consists of Man(3)-GlcNAc(2).