The G protein family of signal transducers includes the alpha, beta, gamma subunits and the effector which are most clearly distinguished by their different alpha chains. The family also includes Gs and Gi, the stimulatory and inhibitory GTP-binding regulators of adenylate cyclase; Go, a protein of unknown function that is abundantly expressed in brain; and transducin 1 and 2, proteins involved in retinal phototransduction. The G proteins possess GTPase activity and are components of a complex membrane signaling system that includes membrane-bound receptors. The system exists to modulate extracellular signals as they are transmitted into the cell.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml.
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. The G(i) proteins are involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase: they inhibit the cyclase in response to beta-adrenergic stimuli. The inactive GDP-bound form prevents the association of RGS14 with centrosomes and is required for the translocation of RGS14 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. May play a role in cell division.
Belongs to the G-alpha family. G(i/o/t/z) subfamily.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > centrosome. Localized at the plasma membrane throughout mitosis. Colocalizes with RIC8A and RGS14 at the plasma membrane (By similarity). Localizes in the centrosomes of interphase and mitotic cells, but not in centrosomes during cytokinesis. Detected at the cleavage furrow or the midbody.
IHC image of ab3522 staining in Human tonsil formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica BondTM system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. The section was then incubated with ab3522, 1µg/ml, for 15 mins at room temperature and detected using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX.
For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, primary antibody concentration and antibody incubation times.
Doi M et al. Gpr176 is a Gz-linked orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that sets the pace of circadian behaviour. Nat Commun7:10583 (2016).
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Ufer C & Germack R Cross-regulation between beta1- and beta3-adrenoceptors following chronic beta-adrenergic stimulation in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Br J Pharmacol158:300-13 (2009).
Read more (PubMed: 19719783) »