Seems to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal signaling during morphogenesis of ectodermal organs. Isoform 1 binds only to the receptor EDAR, while isoform 3 binds exclusively to the receptor XEDAR.
Not abundant; expressed in specific cell types of ectodermal (but not mesodermal) origin of keratinocytes, hair follicles, sweat glands. Also in adult heart, liver, muscle, pancreas, prostate, fetal liver, uterus, small intestine and umbilical chord.
Defects in EDA are the cause of ectodermal dysplasia type 1 (ED1) [MIM:305100]; also known as Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome or X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED). Ectodermal dysplasia defines a heterogeneous group of disorders due to abnormal development of two or more ectodermal structures. ED1 is a disease characterized by sparse hair (atrichosis or hypotrichosis), abnormal or missing teeth and the inability to sweat due to the absence of sweat glands. ED1 is the most common form of over 150 clinically distinct ectodermal dysplasias. Defects in EDA are the cause of tooth agenesis selective X-linked type 1 (STHAGX1) [MIM:313500]. A form of selective tooth agenesis, a common anomaly characterized by the congenital absence of one or more teeth. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth).
Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. Contains 1 collagen-like domain.
N-glycosylated. Processing by furin produces a secreted form.