Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Part of the complex F(1) domain and the central stalk which is part of the complex rotary element. The gamma subunit protrudes into the catalytic domain formed of alpha(3)beta(3). Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits.
Isoform Heart is expressed specifically in the heart and skeletal muscle, which require rapid energy supply. Isoform Liver is expressed in the brain, liver and kidney. Isoform Heart and Isoform Liver are expressed in the skin, intestine, stomach and aorta.